article about smoking in malaysia

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7 By ethnic distribution, the prevalence of smokers was the highest among the Malays, followed by Indians, then … Tob Control. The finding that older Malaysian males smoke less than middle-aged and younger males is also a cause for concern for the two younger cohorts, as population trends show that there will likely be a rise in their numbers in the future, and therefore a greater burden on the country from smoking unless these trends are reversed. By using this website, you agree to our Currently, the tobacco control policies are more focus on cigarettes than other tobacco product. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.10.010. Google ScholarÂ, Peto R, Boreham J, Lopez AD, Thun M, Health C, et al: Mortality from smoking in developed countries 1950–2000: indirect estimates from national vital statistics. Google ScholarÂ. Mathers CD, Loncar D: Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. Other studies by Huisman et al. smoking and smoking among girls and young women Malaysia should prioritise implementation of tobacco control measures in line with recommendations of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). (Accessed on 10 January 2013), Malaysia Spends RM 20 billion to treat tobacco related diseases every year. Introduction: As Stop Smoking Clinics (SSCs) become more common across the globe, it is important to know how far one can make broad generalisations concerning characteristics of smokers who attend these clinics and factors that predict their A significant association was observed between both monthly household income and education level with current smoking status. 2004,…/FP_1_. 2011, 377 (9775): 14381447-, Article  This finding is consistent with what has been reported from previous studies in Europe and Asia [39, 54–56] where it has been postulated that lower-level occupational groups face more physical and psychosocial stressors compared to the managerial and professional classes and therefore, are more likely to engage in high risk health behaviors such as smoking. (Accessed on 27 August 2011), His Majesty’s Government Gazette P.U. Smith DR: Tobacco smoking by occupation in Australia and the united states- a review of national surveys conducted between 1970 and 2005. In addition, in this paper we discuss the effectiveness of current tobacco control measures in light of these findings. 2009, Available at, . There are 23 places where smoking is prohibited. The campaign apparently succeeded in educating the public on the dangers of smoking [11]. To ensure a high response rate, unoccupied households were revisited up to three times. National Health and Morbidity Survey Volume 17. The regulation will be fully enforced effective 1 … 1997, Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Publish Health, Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia: Smoking. 2001, 153: 807-814. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Another possible contributing factor for higher prevalence of smoking in rural areas is targeted marketing by the tobacco industry towards the rural residents [42]. A similar pattern was reported by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), which found that in Malaysia the proportion of current smokers was higher among the 25–44 years old age group (54.9%), decreased to 43.8% for 45–64 year olds, and decreased further to 25.3% for respondents 65 years and above [20]. Tobacco Counters Health Vol 4. Teenage smoking is a severe problem in Malaysia and according to the World Tobacco Marketfile, the number of youth smokers are increasing (See Table 1.2). 2008, 122: 1061-1067. It is likely that individuals with low education, low level occupation, and low income have less access to adequate health care information and face financial difficulties that increase their stress levels, making them more susceptible to partake in unhealthy lifestyle or health risks such as smoking. The International Tobacco Control Survey in 2009 [11] reported that only 9% adult smokers noticed clothing or other items linked to a cigarette brand. Cho HJ, Khang YH, Jun HJ, Kawachi I: Marital status and smoking in Korea: the influence of gender and age. Emphasis should be on rehabilitation and prevention of smoking instead of punishment as commonly practiced now. Continuous and more comprehensive anti-smoking policy measures are needed in order to further prevent the increasing prevalence of smoking among Malaysian men, particularly those who are younger, of Malay ethnicity, less educated, reside in rural residential area and with lower socio-economic status. Before each interview started, the interviewer read out the consent form in order to obtain written consent. (Accessed on 6 February 2012), Global Adult Tobacco Survey Collaborative Group. Peto R: Smoking and death: the past 40 years and the next 40. Approximately 3% of youth between the ages of 13 and 17 were … 2006, Kuala Lumpur: NCD Risk Factors in Malaysia, Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) Malaysia. 2001, 11: 206-210. 2010, 7 (3): 262-267. 85% of teenagers end up as cigarette addicts. The questionnaire was bilingual (Bahasa Malaysia and English) with additional translations of selected items and terminologies in Hokkien, Cantonese and Tamil, the dialects of the other two major ethnic groups in Malaysia. Lancet. Aekplakorn W, Hogan MC, Tiptaradol S, Wibulpolprasert S, Punyaratabandhu P, Lim SS: Tobacco and hazardous or harmful alcohol use in Thailand: Joint prevalence and associations with socioeconomic factors. The ratio of Malaysian male to female smokers … Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. This heralds a worrying trend in Malaysia since at present more than a quarter of its population is aged 15 and below [35]. Google ScholarÂ. Besides, other measures such as designation of smoke-free areas in 2004 [14], restructuring of tobacco taxes to increase the cost of cigarettes in 2007, anti-smoking campaigns such as “Tak Nak” (“Say No”) from 2004–2011, and provision of smoking cessation services at government health clinics [15] have also been instituted. 1994, London: Policy Studies Institute. Health Policy. Malaysia smoking rate for 2015 was 21.80%, a 0.2% decline from 2014. in 2005 and Gilmore et al. Health Place. 10.1136/tc.2007.022319. [48] who reported smoking was not related to marital status among adult persons residing in urban areas of China. 10.1006/pmed.2001.0915. Enumeration Blocks (EBs) are artificially created and geographically contiguous areas consisting of 80–120 households and constitute the primary sampling units for the study. Memon A, Moody PM, Sugathan TN, El-Gerges N, Al-Bustan M, Al-Shatti A, Al-Jazzaf H: Epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults: prevalence, characteristics and attitudes. Analyses were performed using STATA version 10 and SPSS version 16. Data on monthly household income was obtained using an open-ended question asking for the exact income which was later categorized into three categories: (a) less than RM 2000, (b) RM 2000–2999, and (c) RM 3000 and above. To reduce the consumption of tobacco product among Malaysians, the Malaysian government has instituted many anti-smoking measures. 2000, 78: 1306-1315. Goh TC, Tee GH, Salleh S, Lidayati MR, Miezal M, Hairal Z, et al: The effectiveness of Tobacco Product Regulation. 2006, 3 (11): e442-10.1371/journal.pmed.0030442. 2009, 123: 657-664. We would like to thank the Director-General of Health Malaysia for his permission to publish this paper. Lim, H.K., Ghazali, S.M., Kee, C.C. National Health and Morbidity Survey Volume 17. (Accessed on 15 August 2012), Norsiah Ali, Smoking Cessation: Bringing aspiration into reality. Among males aged 18 years and older, almost half were current smokers (49.2%). Divorced (1.67, 95% CI 1.22–2.28) and residing in rural areas (1.12, 95% CI 1.03–1.22) were also associated with a higher likelihood of smoking. 10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.08.009. Khang and Cho (2006), [53] found that the likelihood of smoking was higher among those from lower education and income bracket. Smoking was more common among respondents with low socioeconomic status and among those with primary school education. volume 13, Article number: 8 (2013) 2004, MD, Huattsville: National Center for Health. This sense of vulnerability, in addition to having a greater likelihood of experiencing adverse health events from smoking, tend to make older males more receptive to public health messages and medical advice, and therefore more likely to quit smoking [45]. This study has several limitations; principal among them is its cross-sectional design which limits study findings to the reporting of associations between current smoking status and exposure. Ferrante M, Fiore M, Leon L, Constantidines G, Castaing M, Fallico R, Sciacca S, Modonutti GB: Age of smoking initiation, tobacco habits and risk perception among primary, middle and high school students in southern Italy. The present study found that 60% of Malaysian male smokers started smoking by the age of 18, which is higher than those reported in China (52.7%) [26], but lower than in the USA (80%) [33] and Canada (82.6%) [34]. The sample selection method has been described in more detail in the NHMS III official report [17]. CAS  1994, Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2010, Data was collected using the supervised self administered questionnaire the Youth Risk Behaviour … Correspondence to According to the Control of Tobacco Products (Amendment) Regulations 2018, which were issued in December 2018, smoking is banned in any “eating place,” which is defined as The prevalence of smoking declined with age; with 59.3% (95% CI 57.4–61.2) among 21–30 year olds, 56.8% (95% CI 55.0–58.6) among 31–40 year olds, 48.5% (95% CI 46.7–50.3) among 41–50 year olds, and 35.0% (95% CI 32.9–37.1) among those aged 61 and above. Approximately 22.8% of Malaysians smoke. Proposal Development Section, Institute of Public Health, Jalan Bangsar, 50590, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Hock Kuang Lim, Kuay Kuang Lim, Ying Ying Chan, Huey Chien Teh & Gurpreet Kaur, Epidemiology and Biostatistic unit, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Sumarni Mohd Ghazali, Cheong Chee Kee & Ahmad Faudzi Mohd Yusoff, Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health, 62590, Putrajaya, Malaysia, Pharmacy Practice Department, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia, Health Division, Kuala Lumpur City Hall, Jalan Raja Laut, 50350, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, You can also search for this author in Cigarettes were also the most consumed tobacco product in the Philippines (97.8%) [27] However, cigarettes were less popular in Thailand (64.9%) and India (43.1%) where hand-rolled tobaccos were also commonly used [23, 26]. While Malaysia spends around 3 billion ringgit each year treating smoking-related diseases, smoking rates have remained constant for a decade, at around 25 per cent of the population. This is consistent with findings reported by Nystedt in 2006 [46], Cho et al. 10.1136/tc.8.1.53. Following are the places where smoking is prohibited under Regulation 11(1) of CTPR’04: Br Med J. 1992, 339: 1268-1278. The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over the past decade. For example, advertising a tobacco brand on a non-tobacco product or selling non-tobacco products carrying tobacco brand names [12]. The higher the level of an individual’s education and income, the less likely that individual is to be a current smoker. Smoking in all restaurants, coffeeshops and hawker centres - even open-air eateries - nationwide is banned in Malaysia starting from Jan 1, 2019. 10.1001/jama.282.13.1247. Italian J Public Health. 7 The smoking rate for adult males is 43% 7 and for adult females is 1.4%. Previous studies have shown that smoking is often used as a coping mechanism to deal with stress [57]. However, indirect advertising of cigarette brands in display cabinets may still be found at the check-out counters of sundry shops, food outlets and supermarkets [13]. (Accessed on 26 Dec 2012), ITC Project: Findings from Wave 1 to 4 Surveys (2005–2009). Family with low socioeconomic status is an example of socio-demographic factor. However, local and foreign tobacco industries circumvent such control efforts through trademark diversification. A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. Other plausible explanations would be the lack of perception of harmful effects of tobacco amongst Malaysians [31], higher affordability and easy availability and accessibility to tobacco products in Malaysia. 10.1056/NEJMc1102459.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,…/stat/ctums-esutc_2008-eng.php,…/SYED%20ABD%20RAZ,,, The authors declared that they have no competing interest. 2008, Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Publish Health. Tob Control. 10.1016/j.healthpol.2009.08.013. PLoS Med. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Type of occupation was significantly associated with current smoking status in the present study. During the first six (6) months of 2019, enforcement involves verbal or written warnings. 10.1016/j.healthplace.2006.11.001. About 62,000 families (120,000 people) of Malaysia's 14 million population are involved in tobacco farming, and 360 independent curers employ about 25,000 workers. Levy DT, Benjakul S, Ross H, Ritthiphakdee B: The role of tobacco control policies in reducing smoking and deaths in a middle income nation: results from the Thailand SimSmoke simulation model. * * Department of Psychology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, … World Bank: Curbing the epidemic: governments and the economics of tobacco control. Nystadt P: Marital life course events and smoking behaviour in Sweden 1980–2000. Public Health. The number of households selected was based on 4.4 expected respondents per LQ. Key socio-demographic status variables included age, gender, marital status, highest education level attained, occupation, residential locality and household income level. Control of Tobacco Products Regulation 2004. Springer Nature. As a result, the country seeks to cut the current smoking prevalence into half by year 2020 [9]. 0 Tobacco will likely remain a primary cause of premature mortality and morbidity in Malaysia. 10.1016/j.puhe.2007.12.013. Double manual data entry method was employed for quality control. Using multivariable logistic regression (Table 4), associations were observed between smoking status and level of education, occupation, ethnic group and age. The strengths of this study include its large sample size and representativeness of the Malaysian population. Idris BI, Giskes K, Borrell C, Benach J, Costa G, Federico B, et al: Higher smoking prevalence in urban compared to non urban areas: time trend on six European countries. Huisman M, Kunst AE, Mackenbach JP: Inequalities in the prevalence of smoking in the European union: comparing education and income. Joossens L, Raw M: The tobacco control scale: a new scale to measure country activity. (Accessed on 29 Dec 2011). Research Network for Tobacco Control. Saeed AA, Khoja TA, Khan SB: Smoking behaviour and attitudes among adult Saudi nationals in Riyadh City. statement and As a first step to successfully attain tobacco control goals, the government should pass the draft Tobacco Control Act immediately. 2006, New Delhi: Northern Book Centre, 113-121. 1999, 8: 196-201. Tobacco output has increased from 1.82 million kilograms in 1970 to a peak of 9.4 million kilograms in 1982, worth $38 million. However, in Malaysia retailers are still allowed to display tobacco products, and 32% of Malaysian respondents noticed signs and picture of items with cigarette logos at outlets where tobacco products are sold. Article  �^"^��{ "Hp��@�$8y�����$����L� #Չ��[� ��5 In accordance with results linking occupation and current smoking status, results from this study showed that Malaysians with low socioeconomic status had greater smoking rates than those with high socioeconomic status. In the present study, the mean age of smoking onset (18.3 year old) was lower than reported by the NHMS II in 1996 (19.5 year old) (p <0.01) [16]. 2008, 94: 793-797. More severe penalties such as higher fines, revocation of business license or jail term should be meted out to those who sell cigarettes to minors. 10.1093/aje/153.8.807. 2008, National Poison Centre, University Sains Malaysia, Since the introduction of the Control of Tobacco Products Regulation in 1993, the prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke in gazetted areas has reportedly declined while prohibition of smoking in Malaysian homes has increased from 7% in 2005 to 40.3% in 2009, with nearly half of all smokers designating their homes as non-smoking areas. N Engl J Med. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PubMed  Treatment of Tobacco smoking and dependence 2002. Eur J Public Health. This study was done to determine the prevalence of smoking and factors influencing cigarette smoking among secondary school students in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. For example, with respect to increasing tobacco prices, a Taiwanese study reported the possibility of decreasing the country’s average annual per capita cigarette consumption by 14.86 packs with a 44% increment in the price of cigarettes [37].

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